Bull–Hereñu, K., dos Santos, P., Toni, J.F.G.,El Ottra, J.H.L.,Thaowetsuwan, P., Jeiter, J., Ronse De Craene, L.P. & Iwamoto, A. (2022) Mechanical forces in floral development.Plants-Basel, 11(5), 661. DOI:10.3390/plants11050661 (IF2021 4,658; Q2 Plant Sciences)
Mechanical forces acting within the plant body that can mold flower shape throughout development received little attention. The palette of action of these forces ranges from mechanical pressures on organ primordia at the microscopic level up to the twisting of a peduncle that promotes resupination of a flower at the macroscopic level. Here, we argue that without these forces acting during the ontogenetic process, the actual flower phenotype would not be achieved as it is. In this review, we concentrate on mechanical forces that occur at the microscopic level and determine the fate of the flower shape by the physical constraints on meristems at an early stage of development. We thus highlight the generative role of mechanical forces over the floral phenotype and underline our general view of flower development as the sum of interactions of known physiological and genetic processes, together with physical aspects and mechanical events that are entangled towards the shaping of the mature flower.