Llop, E., Pinho, P., Ribeiro, M.C., Pereira, M.J. & Branquinho, C. (2017) Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.Environmental Science & Pollution Research, 24(13), 12016-12025. DOI:10.1007/s11356-017-8598-0 (IF2017 2.800; Q1 Environmental Sciences)
The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.