Sousa-Santos, C., Jesus, T.F., Fernandes, C., Robalo, J.I. & Coelho, M.M. (2019) Fish diversification at the pace of geomorphological changes: evolutionary history of western Iberian Leuciscinae (Teleostei: Leuciscidae) inferred from multilocus sequence data.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Online early, . DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.12.020 (IF2017 4,412; Q1 Evolutionary Biology)
The evolutionary history of western Iberian Leuciscinae, obligatory freshwater fish, is directly linked to the evolution of the hydrographic network of the Iberian Peninsula after its isolation from the rest of Europe, which involved dramatic rearrangements such as the transition from endorheic lakes to open basins draining to the Atlantic. Previous phylogenetic research on western Iberian leuciscines, using mainly mtDNA and more recently one or two nuclear genes, has found contradictory results and there remain many unresolved issues regarding species relationships, taxonomy, and evolutionary history. Moreover, there is a lack of integration between phylogenetic and divergence time estimates and information on the timing of geomorphological changes and paleobasin rearrangements in the Iberian Peninsula. This study presents the first comprehensive fossil-calibrated multilocus coalescent species tree of western Iberian Leuciscinae (including 14 species of Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Pseudochondrostoma and Squalius endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, six of which endemic to Portugal) based on seven nuclear genes, and from which we infer their biogeographic history by comparing divergence time estimates to known dated geological events. The phylogenetic pattern suggests slow-paced evolution of leuciscines during the Early Miocene endorheic phase of the main Iberian river basins, with the shift to exorheism in the late Neogene-Quaternary allowing westward dispersals that resulted in many cladogenetic events and a high rate of endemism in western Iberia. The results of this study also: i) confirm the paraphyly of S. pyrenaicus with respect to S. carolitertii, and thus the possible presence of a new taxon in the Portuguese Tagus currently assigned to S. pyrenaicus; ii) support the taxonomic separation of the Guadiana and Sado populations of S. pyrenaicus; iii) show the need for further population sampling and taxonomic research to clarify the phylogenetic status of A. arcasii from the Minho basin and of the I. lusitanicum populations in the Sado and Tagus basins; and iv) indicate that A. occidentale, I. olisiponensis and P. duriensis are the most ancient lineages within their respective genera.