Fernandes, J.P., Guiomar, N.& Gil, A. (2019) Identifying key factors, actors and relevant scales in landscape and conservation planning, management and decision making: promoting effective citizen involvement.Journal for Nature Conservation, 47, 12-27. DOI:10.1016/j.jnc.2018.11.001 (IF2017 1,971; Q2 Biodiversity Conservation)
The paper analyses the current limitations of the constraints of decision and action processes in land-use, resource management and conservation policies and approaches, identifying their main factors, proposing alternative strategies to solve the present gaps and limitations. It identifies the need for a new paradigmatic approach based on innovative forms of involvement, commitment and individual and community rewarding systems. This approach is developed based on the characterization of the main drivers of land-use, resource management and conservation policies, namely α-perceptions (immediate and primary satisfaction) and k-perceptions (more mediate and complex consideration of satisfaction, implying long-term perceptions and collective benefits beyond the individual interests). It also analyses the effects of the introduction of new forms of income and incentives (such as trade-offs and payments for environmental services) or management approaches such as Ecological-Based Management or the use of Nature-Based Solutions. The main axioms and instruments necessary to build such a new paradigmatic approach (namely trade-offs, accountability and contractualization) are described. On this basis, it is possible to present a concept for an innovative institutional and social culture and a governance system aimed at an effective land-use, resource management and conservation policies. This governance concept is described and its sustaining individual, social and institutional drivers enunciated.