Calvache, M.F., Santos, R., Antunes, P. & Santos-Reis, M. (2018) Long-term monitoring of mediterranean socio-ecological systems.Agroforestry Systems, Online early, . DOI:10.1007/s10457-018-0274-y (IF2017 1,201; Q3 Forestry)
The montado (in Portugal) or dehesa (in Spain) is an agrosilvopastoral system found in the Iberian Peninsula. Due to its high environmental value, its protection forms part of European biodiversity strategies, but recent management trends are threatening its sustainability. The need to understand the drivers of change and associated impacts means that launching an integrative monitoring of this system is urgent. This article identifies critical elements of the socioeconomic system to be considered within a socio-ecological monitoring of montados and conducts a review of potential indicators based on generally available data. We conclude by pointing out that monitoring of this socio-ecological system faces multiple challenges, such as limited data availability, the difficulty of defining a set of indicators that reflects the complexity of montados, and the integration of data of different natures and diverse temporal and spatial scales. The approach presented in this research can be adapted to similar agroforestry systems.